1. How to Write Research Papers
For a Key to the Abbreviations, see the bottom of this page.
Common Logic Found in Thesis Papers
The opening section usually has a few of the following characteristics.
- Papers often begin with a general statement of fact. The first
sentence often states a problem which exists in the scholastic
field. This is NOT your opinion, and it is NOT the main point
of the paper. For examples, look at these opening statements:
- A sentence in the introduction narrows down the problem: P2,
- One or two additional sentences continue to explain about the
problem: P3, B4,
- Often the introduction states that there has been a lack of
research: P4, B5
- A sentence in the introduction often states a traditional,
established finding in the field: P5,
- Often there are one or two sentences explaining about more
recent findings: P6, E6,
- The main idea of the whole paper is clearly stated. Sometimes
it is the final sentence of the first paragraph. Sometimes it
is the first sentence of the final paragraph in the introduction.
See: P7, E7,
- Gives more background, reviewing the literature. In a short
paper, this step might be skipped. G7,
- Explains materials and methods: E8,
- Every sentence in each paragraph supports the first sentence
in the paragraph. P10,
iii. . Conclusion
The concluding section usually has a few of the following characteristics.
- A statement summarizes what the author has done above. P8,
- And the author goes on to discuss relevant points P9,
- Summarizes the current situation. P11
- Papers often end on a note of hope, or on a warning of danger
to come. P12
- A statement explains the usefulness or uniqueness of the findings.E10,
- A statement explains what needs to be done in the future.E11,
Key to the Abbreviations:
B = Biology gBetanodavirus
as a novel transneuronal tracer for fishh by Takanori Ikenaga,
Yuki Tatecho, Toshihiro Nakai, Kazumasa Uematsu.
E = Engineering gColloid
Release Velocities in Soil Columns during Short- and Long-term Multiple
Irrigation Eventsh by Masaharu Motoshita, Toshiko Komatsu, Per
Moldrup, Noriatsu Ozaki, Lis W. de Jonge.
G = Genetics gMetabolic
significance and expression ofCaenorhabditis elegans type II 3-oxoacyl-CoA
thiolaseh by Masanori Bun-ya, Motohiro Maebuchi, Summanuna H.
Togo, Takao Kurosawa, Takashi Hashimoto, and Tatsuyuki Kamiryo.
Geo = Geology gZinc-rich
Pyrite from the TAG Active Mound, the TAG Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic
Ridgeh by Su Young Lee, Masatsugu Ohnishi, Yasuhiro Shibata,
Makoto Watanabe, Kenichi Hoshino, Mayumi Jige, Xiangping Gu, Hitoshi
Chiba, Tamotsu Oomori, Kantaro Fujioka and Peter A. Rona.
M = Mathematics gINSET
as a Tool for Improving Mathematical Competence: Analysis of the
Teachersf Performance Before and after a Training Programh by
P = Psycholinguistics gThe
Myth of Absence of Dyslexia in Japanh by Jun Yamada