English Writing Help Center
Writing Thesis and Research Papers

1. How to Write Research Papers

For a Key to the Abbreviations, see the bottom of this page.

Common Logic Found in Thesis Papers

i. Introduction

The opening section usually has a few of the following characteristics.

  1. Papers often begin with a general statement of fact. The first sentence often states a problem which exists in the scholastic field. This is NOT your opinion, and it is NOT the main point of the paper. For examples, look at these opening statements: P1, E1, B1, G2, Geo1, M2
  2. A sentence in the introduction narrows down the problem: P2, E2, B3, Geo2, M3
  3. One or two additional sentences continue to explain about the problem: P3, B4, G3, Geo3
  4. Often the introduction states that there has been a lack of research: P4, B5
  5. A sentence in the introduction often states a traditional, established finding in the field: P5, E3, G4, Geo4
  6. Often there are one or two sentences explaining about more recent findings: P6, E6, B2, G5, Geo5
  7. The main idea of the whole paper is clearly stated. Sometimes it is the final sentence of the first paragraph. Sometimes it is the first sentence of the final paragraph in the introduction. See: P7, E7, B6, G6, Geo6, M4

ii. Body

  1. Gives more background, reviewing the literature. In a short paper, this step might be skipped. G7, Geo7
  2. Explains materials and methods: E8, B7, Geo8, M5
  3. Every sentence in each paragraph supports the first sentence in the paragraph. P10, E9, B8, M6

iii. . Conclusion

The concluding section usually has a few of the following characteristics.

  1. A statement summarizes what the author has done above. P8, G8, Geo9, M7
  2. And the author goes on to discuss relevant points P9, M8
  3. Summarizes the current situation. P11
  4. Papers often end on a note of hope, or on a warning of danger to come. P12
  5. A statement explains the usefulness or uniqueness of the findings.E10, B9
  6. A statement explains what needs to be done in the future.E11, B10, Geo10, Geo11, M9

Key to the Abbreviations:

B = Biology gBetanodavirus as a novel transneuronal tracer for fishh by Takanori Ikenaga, Yuki Tatecho, Toshihiro Nakai, Kazumasa Uematsu.
E = Engineering gColloid Release Velocities in Soil Columns during Short- and Long-term Multiple Irrigation Eventsh by Masaharu Motoshita, Toshiko Komatsu, Per Moldrup, Noriatsu Ozaki, Lis W. de Jonge.
G = Genetics gMetabolic significance and expression ofCaenorhabditis elegans type II 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolaseh by Masanori Bun-ya, Motohiro Maebuchi, Summanuna H. Togo, Takao Kurosawa, Takashi Hashimoto, and Tatsuyuki Kamiryo.
Geo = Geology gZinc-rich Pyrite from the TAG Active Mound, the TAG Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridgeh by Su Young Lee, Masatsugu Ohnishi, Yasuhiro Shibata, Makoto Watanabe, Kenichi Hoshino, Mayumi Jige, Xiangping Gu, Hitoshi Chiba, Tamotsu Oomori, Kantaro Fujioka and Peter A. Rona.
M = Mathematics gINSET as a Tool for Improving Mathematical Competence: Analysis of the Teachersf Performance Before and after a Training Programh by Teresita Bambico.
P = Psycholinguistics gThe Myth of Absence of Dyslexia in Japanh by Jun Yamada